A Tabriz Carpet, 7' x 10'. The central cartouche in navy, green and cream on a light red ground. floor covering handmade in or around Tabriz, the principal city of northwestern Iran and one of its best-known carpet-producing centres. The identification of the court carpets of the early 16th-century Safavid shahs who made Tabriz their capital is no longer as simple as it once seemed. Still, the magnificent Ardabil Carpet at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and its mate in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art seem likely representatives of this production. More characteristic of Tabriz carpets, however, are the many 16th- and 17th-century carpets of commercial quality, in Senna (Sehna) knotting upon a foundation of cotton, which apparently were exported to southern Europe and are now widespread in museum collections. These carpets usually show a medallion decorative scheme, ranging from a single medallion to the complexity of a star centrepiece with pendants and cartouches, reflected by quarter-medallions similarly elaborated in the corners of the field. The ground pattern often features coiled arabesque vine work. From the mid-19th century there has been a revival of commercial carpet production in Iran, and Tabriz has been one of the most important centres in the country, producing carpets of widely varying quality, largely destined for Europe. These new carpets are Ghiordes-knotted and have a simpler weft arrangement. The highly varied designs include medallion schemes in curvilinear draftsmanship as well as imitations of classic carpet patterns from other parts of Persia. The designs have been criticized as too regular and mechanical, and the colouring as too hard, the old vegetable dyes having been largely supplanted by European chromes and anilines. The wool is said to be harsher than that used in other Iranian centres, resulting in a stiffer, crisper pile. Instead of using the fingers to tie the knots, it is a local custom among the weavers to use a knife with a projection like a buttonhook. By this means they can develop higher speed than the weavers in other districts and have been timed at faster than one knot per second.